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Wudhu (Ablution)

In Wudhu it is obligatory to wash the face and hands, and to wipe the front portion of the head and the upper part of the two feet.

The praying person should perform ablution and should prepare for the major worship before praying.

In some cases one should perform Ghusl (obligatory bath) before the ritual prayer, he/she should wash all his/her body and if he/she cannot perform ablution, he/she must perform another action. This is called Tyammum (should be performed instead of Wudhu or Ghusl).

This chapter will familiarize the reader with these injunctions.

How to perform Wudhu?

54 - In performing Wudhu, it is obligatory towash the face first. Secondly the person shouldwash the right hand then the left hand, after washing both hands, one who is performing Wudhu should wipe the front part of his/her head with the wetness which is in his hand.  Finally one should wipe the right foot, and then the left foot with the moisture persent on one's hands.

Wudhu actions and explanations


55 - During Wudhu a person should wash the face from the upper part of the forehead, from the hair line, down to the farthest end of the chin. Thus, in order to insure that the obligatory (prescribed) part has been fully washed, one should also wash a bit of the adjacent parts.

56 - After washing the face, one should first wash the right hand and then the left hand, from the elbows to the tips of the fingers.

57 - In order to ensure that each elbow has been washed throughly one should include some portion above the elbow in washing.

58 - If before washing the face, a person has washed his/her hands up to the wrist, he/she should, while performing Wudhu wash them up to the tips of the fingers, and if he/she washes them only up to the wrist, his/her Wudhu is valid.

Maskh To wipe the front portion of the head and upper part of the two feet

59 - The part on which wipping should be performed, is one fourth of the frontal part of the head up to the top of the forehead.

60 - The wiping of the head, should be in the amount that when a person is watching says that, he is wiping.

61 - Recommended precaution is that the width should be equal to three joined fingers,and its length should be equal to one finger.

62 - It is not necessary that the wiping of the head should be performed on the scalp.  It is also allowed if a man wipes the hair on the front part of his head.  However, if the hair is so long that when combed it falls on his/her face or other parts of his head, he/she should wipe the root of his/her hair or the scalp.

63 - After wiping the head, one should wipe with the moisture present on one's hands or one's feet from any toe of the foot up to the joint (on the top of the foot).

64 - While wiping one's head and feet, one should move his hand on them and if the feet and head move instead leaving the hand stationary, the Wudhu would be invalid, however, there is no harm if the head and feet move slightly, while the hand is being moved during wiping.

65 - If moisture disappears on the palm, it cannot be made wet with fresh water. In that situation, the person should obtain moisture from any part of the other areas of Wudhu such as the face and then wipe.

66 - The moisture of the hand should be of such amount that it affects on head and feet.

67 - The parts for wiping should be dry, if they are wet, they should be dried. However there is no harm if the wetness on those parts is so insignificant that the moisture of the palm overcomes it.

68 - Nothing should intervene between the head or feet and the hand even things. such asa veil, socks, shoes or hats.

The wetness should reach the skin. (except intime of distress).

69 - The part of wiping should be Pak, and if it can not be washed for wiping one should perform tayammum.

Wudhu Conditions

70 - With the following conditions Wudhu is correct and if lacking even one of these conditions Wudhu is void.

a) The water should be Pak. (not Najis).

b) The water should be Mubah (permissible for use).

c) The water should be pure (not mixed).

d) The container of the water should be Mubah (permissible for use by the person).

e) The container of the water used for Wudhu should not be made of gold or silver.

f) The body on which Wudhu is performed should be Pak.

g) There should be no impediment in the way of water reaching the parts of Wudhu.

h) One should perform Wudhu with the intention of Qurbut to obey the orders of Allah and without hypocrisy.

i) Wudhu should be performed in the perscribed sequence (as explained before).

j) The steps to Wudhu should be carried out one after the other without time gap in between.

k) In performing Wudhu a person should not obtain help from the others.  He/she should perform Wudhu on his/her own.

l) There should be no constraint for using water.

m) The person performing Wudhu should have sufficient time.

Wudhu Conditions Explanation

71 - Wudhu performed with Najis or mixed water is void, even if one may not be aware of its being najis, or mixed, or may have fogotten about it.

72 - The water should be Mubah (permissible for use) so in following cases Wudhu is void.

* To perform Wudhu with water about which one knows the owner would not allow its use.

* To perform Wudhu with water which one does not know whether the owner would allow its use or not.

* To perform Wudhu with water which has been specifically designated for special persons such as the pool or tank of water of a school and the place for ablution of some mosques which has been dedicated for the people who are praying in that mosque.

73 - There is no harm if a person performs Wudhu in the water flowing in big canals, even if he/she does not know whether the owner of that canal would allow it.  But if the owner of the canal prohibits performing Wudhu with that water, it is obligatory precaution that one should refrain from performing Wudhu in it.

74 - If one performs Wudhu with the water which is in a usurped container and there is no other water, he/she should performTayammum. If he/she performs Wudhu with that water his/her Wudhu is void.

75 - That part of the body on which Wudhu is performed, should be pak, at the time of washing and wiping.

76 - There should be nothing on the face and hand in the way of water reaching the parts of Wudhu. One should revome it for performing Wudhu.

77 - If there is anything in that part of the body on which wiping is performed (frontal part of the head and feet ) it should be removed although it does not prevent water from reaching.  Nothing should be an impediment between the hand and the place of wiping.

78 - A mark of a pen and paint stains as long as they are permeable are not an obstacle for Wudhu but if they are impermeable and prevent water from reaching the skin they must be removed.

79 - If a person is aware that there is something on some of the areas of Wudhu, but she/he doubts about whether the water is reaching them or not, she/he should remove it, or should make the water reach under it.

80 - Wudhu should be performed by these steps: the face should be washed first, then the right hand and next the left hand, there after the head should be wiped and then the feet.  As obligatory caution the right foot should be wiped before the left food.  If Wudhu is not performed in this manner it will be void.

81 - Movalat mean that the acts of Wudhu should be done one after the other, without a time gap in between.

82 - If there is so much gap between the acts of Wudhu such that the preceding parts which had been washed or wiped have dried up Wudhu is void.

83 - A person who can do the acts of Wudhu should perform Wudhu his/herself, so if another person helps his/her in washing face and hands and wiping the head or feet that person's Wudhu is void.

84 - If a person cannot perform Wudhu him/herself, he/she should appoint someone to assist him/her, but these two persons should perform Wudhu with the intention of Wudhu.

85 - If a person fears that he/she will become ill when performs Wudhu, it is obligatory caution that he/she does not perform Wudhu and performs tayammum for praying.  If she/he was unaware that water was harmful to him/her and performed Wudhu, and later on, it turned out to be harmful, his/her Wudhu will be void, although as a recommended precaution he/she does not perform prayer with that Wudhu.

86 - Wudhu should be performed with the niyyat of Qurbat i.e to obey the orders of Allah. It is not necessary that one should utter the intention of Wudhu in words or think about it in his mind. It is sufficient that he/she knows that he/she is performing Wudhu, i,e if he/she is asked by people what are you doing? His/her answer will be, I am performing Wudhu.

87 - If the time is so short that by making Wudhu, the entire prayer or part of it will have to be offered after its prescribed time he/she should perform tayammum.  But if he/she feels that the time required for tayammum and Wudhu is equal, then he/she should make Wudhu.

Jabira Wudhu

The medication applied to wound or a thing such as a splint with which a wound or a fractured bone is bandaged or held tight is called Jabira.

88 - If there is a wound a fractured bone in the parts on which Wudhu is performed, and if it is not bandaged, then one should perform Wudhu in the usual manner and if it isbandaged and it is posible to open the wound,and the use of water is not harmful, one should remove the bandage.

89 - If there is an unbandaged wound in one'sface or hands, and if the use of water isharmful for it, one should wash the parts adjoining the wound.  If it is not harmful to pass the wet hand on wound, it is precaution to pass the wet hand on it and then to place a pak piece of cloth on it, and pass a wet hand over that cloth.

90 - In Jabira Wudhu, one should wipe or wash those parts of Wudhu if it is possible and if it is not possible one should pass the wet hand on those parts of Wudhu.

91 - If there is an unbandaged wound or fractured bone on the front part of the hand,or on the feet, and he/she cannot wipe it,he/she should keep a piece of pak cloth on the wound and wipe that cloth with the moisture of Wudhu on his/her hands.

92 - If a person has several Jabiras on his/herface or hands, he/she should wash the place between them, and if the Jabiras are on the hand or on the feet, he/she should wipe the places between them, and as for the places where there are Jabiras, he/she should act according to the rules of Jabira.

93 - If a person has jabira on his palm and fingers, and he/she passes a wet hand on it while perforing Wudhu, he/she can do the wiping of his or her head and feet with the same wetness or he/she can take wetness from other parts of Wudhu.

94 - If the Jabira has covered all the face or all of one hand, one should perform Jabira Wudhu and this is enough.

95 - If the Jabira has covered the entire surface of the foot, but a part from the side of the fingers, and a part from the upper side of the foot is open, one should do wiping on the foot at the open places, and also on the surface of the Jabira.

96 - If the Jabira has covered unusally more space than the size of the wound, and it is not  possible to remove it, one should perform Jabira Wudhu and as obligatory caution one should perform tayammum and if it is possible to remove the Jabira one should remove it.

97 - If something is stuck on the part of Wudhuor Ghusl, and it is not possible to remove it, orits removal involves unbearable pain, then one should perform Jabira Wudhu.

98 - If Jabira is Najis and it is not possible to pass the wet hand over it, one should keep a piece of pak cloth on it and then pass wet hand on it.  For example if medication is stuck on the hand.

99 - Jabira Ghusl is like Jabira Wudhu.  However as an obligatory cation in such cases one should resort to Ghusl - e - Tartibi not Ertemasi.

Things for which Wudhu is obligatory.

100 - Humans should perform Wudhu for all prayers (except Namaz-e-Meyyit) for theTawaf of the Holy Kabeh and for the touching the script of the holy Quran and the name of Allah with any part of one's body.

101 - If the prayer or Tawaf is performed without Wudhu, it is void.

102 - A person should not touch the script of the holy Quran with any part of one's body without performing Wudhu but there is no harm in touching the translation of the holy Quran, in any language, without Wudhu.

103 - It is better not to touch the name of Allah with any part of one's body in any language without performing Wudhu such as Allah, God.

104 - Wudhu is Mustahab for the following purposes:

* Entering a mosque and the shrines of the Imams.

* Reading the holy Quran

* Keeping and carrying the Quran with you.

* Touching any part of one's body on the margin or border of the holy Quran.

* Visiting the graves.

How Wudhu becomes void?

105 - Wudhu becomes void with following things:

* Passing of urine, excretion of feces and wind from the rear.

* A deep sleep, without hearing or seeing

* Conditions such as if a person losses his/her sensibility, such as insanity, intoxicaton or unconciousness.

* Istihaza(3) (irregular menstrual discharges)

* Any thing which requires Ghusl such as Janabat and Mash mayyat.