140 - Tayammum should be performed instead of Wudhu or Ghusl in the following circumstances:
* when water is not avaliable or it not possible to procure water for performing Wudhu or Ghusl.
* If the person fears that using water will be harmful for him/her, such as, if he/she uses water, illness will become apparent or it becomes acute or will prolonged.
* If he/she fears that by using up the water for Ghusl or Wudhu, he/she, his/her children, wife, his/her friends and those related to him/her will suffer acute thirst which may result in their illness or death or it may cause intolerable hardship. (even if animals may die because of thirst).
* If the body or clothes of a person are najis and he/she possesses only as much water which is likely to be exhausted if he/she does Ghusl or Wudhu, and no water would be avaliable for making his/her body or clothes pak then one must perform tayammuminstead Ghusl or Wudhu.
* when the time left for Salat is so little that ifa person does Ghusl or Wudhu he/she wouldbe obliged to offer the entire prayers or a partof it after the prescirbed time, he/she shouldperform Tayammum.
Method of Performing Tayammum
141 - Five things are obligatory in Tayammum:
a)- Intention (Niayyat).
b) Striking both of the palms on the object on which Tayammum is valid.
c) Wiping the entire forehead and its two ends commencing from the spot where the hair of one's head grows down to the eyebrows and above the nose, with the palms of both hands.
d) To pass the left palm over the whole back of the right hand.
e) To pass the right palm over the whole backof the left hand (fingers are part of the palm).
142 - In order to be sure that the backs of the hands have been wiped, wiping should be done from slightly above the wrist, but wiping between the fingers is not necessary.
143 - The person should remove rings and also remove any obstruction which may be on his/her forehead or on the palm while performing Tayammum.
144 - All Tayammum acts should be done with intention of Tayammum and for obeying the order of Allah, and also it should be obvious that this Tayammum is done in place of Wudhu or Ghusl, This is the intention for Ttayammum.
Things on which Tayammum is allowed
145 - Tayammum can be done on earth, sand lump of clay or stone and cooked clay such as brick.
The Rules of Tayammum
146 - Tayammum which is performed instead of Wudhu has no difference with Tayammum which is performed instead of Ghusl.
147 - If a person performes Tayammum instead of Wudhu things which invalidate Wudhu invalidate the Tayammum.
148 - If a person performs Tayammum instead of Ghusl things which invalidate Ghusl, invalidate the Tayammum, such as, if he/she performed Tayammum instead of Janabat Ghusl and becomes Jonob again his/herTayammum would be void.
149 - Tayammum is correct under the condition that a person can not make Ghusl or Wudhu. Making Tayammum without a reason is not correct if the obstacle is removed that person's Tayammum is invalid.
150 - If a person performs Tayammum instead of Ghusl of Janabat it is not necessary for him/her to perform Wudhu for offering prayers. However, if he/she performs Tayammum instead of other Ghusls, he/she can not do Wudhu, he/she should do another Tayammum instead of wudhu.