One of the obligatory acts and Islamic programs for self purification is fasting. Fasting means that a person must, in obedience to the commands of Allah, from the time of the Adhan for Fajr prayers up until the Adhan of Maghrib avoid certain things which will be mentioned later.
Niyyat (intention) for Fasting
355 - Fasting is part of worship and it must be performed in order to obey the command of Allah. This is also the Niyyat for fasting.
356 - It is necessary for a person to make Niyyat every night of the holy month of Ramadhan at the arrival of dawn (Fajr) for that individual fast, whether that person made Niyyat before or not.
357 - It is not necessary for a person to say, the Niyyat for fasting but it is enough for that person in order to obey the command of Allah to abstain from any act which will invalidate the fast from the time of the Adhan for Fajr prayers up until Maghrib.
Things which make a fast void
358 - A person who is fasting should avoid some acts from the time of the Adhan for Fajr prayer up until Maghrib and if that person performs any of these acts, the fast will be void. Acts which invalidate fast are:
* Eating and Drinking
* Swallowing thick dust
* Immersing one's complete head in water
Also there are other acts which invalidate fast and the reader can refer to Resalah of Tawdhih-al-Masael rule 1645.
Details of these acts will be explained in following articles
Eating and Drinking
359 - If a person eats or drinks something intentionally that person's fast becomes void.
360 - If a person observing fast intentionally swallows something which remained in between his teeth, his fast is invalidated.
361 - Swallowing saliva does not invalidate afast, even if it is a large amount.
362 - If a person who is fasting forgets and eats or drinks something, that persons's fast does not become invalid.
363 - A person cannot abandon the fast on account of weakness. However, if that person's weakness is to such extent that fasting becomes totally unbearable, there is no harm in breaking the fast.
364 - A person who is fasting cannot inject injections which are used in place of food.
But there is no harm in injecting (using) others injections.
Letting Dust Reach One's Throat
365 - If a person who is fasting swallows thick dust to reach into one's throat, that makes one's fast void, whether the dust is of someting which is eatable such as flour, or non eatable such as dust.
366 - As on obligatory precaution, a person who is observing fast, should not allow cigarettes and tobacco smoke to reach their throat.
Immersing One's Head in Water
367 - As an obligatory precaution if a fasting person intentionally immerses their entire head in the water, that person's fast is void.
368 - If a fasting person falls into the water involountarily, and his/her entire head goes into the water, or if he forgets that he is fasting and immerses his head in the water, his fast will not be void but when he/she realizes it, he/she should take out his/her head from water immediately.
369 - If a fasting person vomits intentionally that person's fast becomes void, though he/she may have been obliged to do so on account of sickness.
370 - If a fasting person vomits forget full or without intention, his/her fast does not become void.
Qadha and Kaffarah for fast
371 - If a person does not perform fasting or he has voided his/her fasting in Ramadhan, he/she should perform Qadha after Ramadhan.
Kaffarrah for Fast
372 - If a person invalidated his fasting with any acts which are Harram during fasting she/he must make up that fast (performing Qadha) in addition to one of the following. This is kaffarrah.
* Free a slave
* Fast for two months consecutively
* Feed sixty poor or give one mudd 34 kg (=750 gr) of food - stuff, like wheat, barley or bread etc to each one of them.
- If kaffarrah has become obligatory on person she/he should perform one of the three acts and because to day there are no slaves, she/he should act according 2 and 3, and if it is not possible for him/her to fulfil any of these, that person should fast for 18 days and, give what food he can to the poor and obligatory precaution is that he/she seek Divine forgiveness and he/she is should also give kaffarah when he/she is capable to do so.
The Rules of Qadha and kaffarah for Fast
373 - It is not necessary to observe Qadha immediately after Ramadhan but as an obligatory precaution one must observe Qadha before the next Ramadhan.
374 - One should not be negligent about givingkaffarah. But it is not necessary to give itimmediately and for some years no increase inthe kaffarah takes place.
375 - If some one did not fast due to an obstacle such as a journey, and after the month of Ramadhan the obstacle is removed and until the next Ramadhan the Qadha fast is not made up, in addition to Qadha one Mudd of foods stuff (=750 gr) must be given to a poor person.
376 - If a person does not fast in the month ofRamadhan due to illness and his/her illness continues until the next Ramadhan, it is not obligatory on him to observe Qadha (making up overdue) of the fasts which he had not observed, but for each fast he/she should give one mudd of food to the poor such as wheat, barley, bread etc.
Fasting by a traveller
377 - A traveller for whom it is obligatory to shorten four Rak-at prayers to two Rak-ats,should not fast and she/he should observe Qadha fasting. Later howerer, a traveller who offers full prayers, such as, a person whose profession is travelling, should fast while travelling.
378 - If a fasting person travels after Zuhr prayer he/she should complete his fast and it is correct.
379 - If a fasting person travels before Zuhr when she/he has reached the limit of Tarakkus (she/he cannot see the wall of city and connot hear Adhan of city) she/he should break his fast and he connot break the fast till he has reached the limit of Tarakkhus. If he does, as an obligatory precaution, in addition to Qadha, he will be liable to give kaffarah.
380 - It is no harm to travel in the month of Ramadhan, but it is Makrooh if travelling is in order to escape fasting.
381 - If a traveller in the month of Ramadhan reaches his/her hometown before Zuhr or a place where he/she intends to stay for ten days, and has not committed an act which invalidates a fast, she/he should fast on that day. But if he has committed such an act, it is not obligatory on him to fast on that day. Later, he should observe Qadha fasting.
382 - If a traveller reaches his/her home town after Zuhr, or a place where he/she intends to stay for ten days, he/she cannot fast on that day.
Zakat of Fitrah
383 - After the month of Romadhan has ended (ie.in Eid day or Fitr Eid day) he/she should give some of his property as a Zakat of Fitrah.
Account of Zakat of Fitrah
384 - He/she should give, on his own behalf as well as his dependents, such as his wife and children, about three kilos per head.
The Goods of Zakat of Fitrah
385 - The goods of Zakat of Fitrah are wheat or barley, or dates or raisin, rice or millet. It is sufficient if he pays the price of one of these items in cash.