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Reba (interests) of exchange

2174. If a seller sells a commodity, which is sold by weight or measurement, at a higher rate against the same commodity, like, if he sells (3 kilos) of wheat for 5 kilos of wheat, it is usury and, therefore, Haraam. In fact, the sin of one Dirham of Reba is worse than 70 times of Zina with Mohram. In fact, if one of the two kinds of same commodity is faultless, and the other is defective, or one is superior and the other is inferior, or if their prices differ, and the seller asks for more than the quantity he gives, even then it is usury and Haraam. Hence, if a person gives unbroken copper or brass and takes more of broken copper and brass, or gives a good quality of rice, and asks for more of inferior kind of rice instead, or gives manufactured gold and takes a larger quantity of raw gold, it is usury and Haraam.

2175. If the thing, which has asks for in addition, is different from the commodity which he sells, like, if he sells one Man (3 kilos) of wheat against 3 kilos of wheat and one Rial cash, even then it is usury and Haraam. In fact, if he does not take anything in excess, but imposes the condition that the buyer would render some service to him, it is also usury and Haraam.

2176. If the person who is giving less quantity of a commodity, supplements it with some other thing, for example, if he sells 3 kilos of wheat and one handkerchief for 5 kilos of wheat, there is no harm it, provided that the intention is that the handkerchief is for the excess he is receiving, and also that the transaction is not on credit. And if both the parties supplement the commodity with something, like 3 kilos of wheat with a handkerchief is sold for 3 1/2 kilos and handkerchief, there is no objection to it.

2177. If one sells something like cloth which is sold by meters, or something like walnut or eggs which are sold by counting, and asks for more instead there is no objection, for example, he gives 10 eggs and takes 11 instead. And if one sells 10 eggs for 11 on credit, it is not necessary to be a difference between them to realize a transaction, for example, he gives 10 big eggs for 11 medium ones in credit the same applies to exchange of bank notes. In other words, he may sell cash notes to higher ones in credit. For example, he sells one thousand cash Tomans to 1200 Tomans which will become cash in 6 months, and also transaction or exchange of bank notes to Dollars or other foreign currencies by bank or exchange houses and people is in order, but lending for interests (Reba) is Haraam.

2178. A commodity which is sold in some cities by weight or measurement and in some others by counting, if one gets more in the city which it is sold by weight or measurement, it is Reba and Haraam, but not in the other one.

2179. If the thing, which is sold and what is taken instead of it are not from the same category, then it is in order to take more. Therefore, if one sells one Man (3 kilos) of rice and takes 2 Man (6 kilos) of wheat, transaction is correct.

2180. If the thing, which is sold and its consideration are from the same source, nothing more should be taken. Therefore, if one sells one Man (3 kilos) of Ghee and takes 1.5 Man (5 kilos) of cheese, it is Reba and Haraam. The same applies if ripe fruit is exchanged for the raw ones and one cannot take more.

2181. From the point of Reba (usury) wheat and barley are commodities of one and the same category. Hence, if a person gives 3 kilos of wheat and takes in exchange thereof, 3.5 kilos of barley, it is usury and Haraam. And if a person purchases 10 Man (30 kilos) of barley, on the condition that he would give in exchange 30 kilos of wheat at the time of its harvest, it is Haraam, because he has taken barley on the spot and will give wheat some time later, and this amounts to taking something in excess, and therefore Haraam.

2182. Father and son, husband and wife can take interest from each other. Similarly, a Muslim can take interest from a non-Muslim who is not under protection of Islam.