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Rules of things allowed to eat and drink

2770. All birds, like eagle, vultures and wild falcons having a claw and talon, are Haraam to eat. As an obligatory precaution, one should refrain from eating the meat of all types of crows and bat and peacock. Other birds like the hens, the pigeons, the sparrows (nightingale, lark, starling) and ostrich are Halal to eat. But it is Makrooh to eat birds like swallows and hoopoes.

2771. Usually, Halal birds are distinguished from Haraam birds by two criteria:
First, those whose flapping of the wings while flying is more than gliding are Halal to eat. Birds that keep their wings fixed while flying more than flapping, are Haram.
Second, birds that have crop or gizzard or a spur on the back of their feet are Halal, and those who do not have them are Haraam.

2772. Eggs of Halal birds are Halal and eggs of Haraam birds are Haraam. If there is doubt, those eggs which have similar shapes in both sides are Haraam and those eggs which the shape of one side in narrower than the others side, are Halal.

2773. Among marine animals, only fish that have scales are Halal and also the fish which have visible scales near ears, but all fish which do not have scales are Haraam and also other water animals such as whales, crabs and frogs are Haraam

2774. Eggs of marine Halal animals, are Halal and eggs of Haraam ones are Haraam.

2775. If something is cut off a living animal, like fat or meat of sheep, it is Najis and Haraam.

2776. Some parts of Halal animals is Haraam and some others are Haraam only as an obligatory precaution and all of them are 15 things: blood; excrement; & (iv) male and female genitals; womb; glands which are called Dashool; testicles; pituitary gland, a ductless gland in the brain; the marrow which is in the spinal cord; the two wide (yellow) nerves which are on both sides of the spinal cord; call bladder; spleen; urinary bladder; eye balls; as an obligatory precaution, what is between hoofs which is called “Zatolashajeh”, these things should be avoided in large animals and in case of small animals such as sparrows that it is not possible to find and cut off these items, there is no objection to eat them.

2777. Eating urine and mucus is Haraam and as an obligatory precaution, other parts which are naturally disgusting to human beings should be avoided, but if they are Pak and is so mixed with Halal things that commonly it is not distinguishable, it is in order to eat them.

2778. It is Haraam to eat dust. But it is permissible to take a small quantity of the clay of the Shrine of Imam Husayn (S) for the purpose of cure for illness. But it is better to dissolve a small quantity of it in water and then drink it. Also, taking Daghistan and Armenian clay as a medicine, if there is no alternative, has no harm.

2779. It is not Haraam to swallow the mucus and phlegm, which have not yet come in one’s mouth. But if they come in one’s mouth, as an obligatory precaution, they must not be taken down. Also, there is no objection in swallowing the food, which comes out from between the teeth at the time of tooth picking.

2780. It is Haraam to eat an absolutely harmful thing, or anything which may cause death.

2781. Among domestic animals, eating meat of camel, cow and sheep is Halal; but eating the meat of horse, mule, and donkey is Makrooh. Among desert wild animals, eating the meat of deer, elk, undomesticated cows, wild sheep, wild goats, and wild ass is Halal.

2782. A domestic Halal animal turns into Haraam in three ways:

First, it eats only excrements of human beings as a habit, which is called Jal’lal in this case) and its meat and milk are both Najis and as a precaution its urine and excrements are also Najis.

Second, if a human being has intercourse with those animals, in this case, its meat and milk are both Haraam and as an obligatory precaution, its offspring also Haraam and as an obligatory precaution, its offspring also Haraam and as a precaution its urine and excrements are also Haraam.

Third, if the kid of a goat or a lamb or calf sucks the milk of a pig to such an extent that its flesh and bones grow from it and gain strength, itself and its milk and its offspring become Haraam and as an obligatory precaution, its urine and excrement are Najis. But if they drink human milk and grow, their meat and milk are not Haraam, but unrecommended.

2783. A Jal’lal animal should confined (perform Istibra) which means it should be forced to avoid eating Nejasat and it should be fed with Pak food so that is can no longer be called Jal’lal. And as an obligatory precaution, camel should be confined for 40 days, cow for 30 days, but it is better to be 40 also, sheep for 10 days but it is better to be 14 days and ducks for 5 days but it is better to be 7 days and hens for 3 days and fish for 24 hours, as an act of Istibra.

2784. If a person commit intercourse with an animal like cow, camel and sheep which their meat and milk are usually consumed, such an animal should be instantly killed and burnt and one who has done this disgusting act should pay its price to the owner. But if they are usually used for transportation, such as horse, mule and donkey, they should be taken to another city and sold there and the person who has done this disgusting act should bear expenses, and if such an animal is mixed among others and it has no identifying marks, it should be determined by drawing lots.

2785. Meat and milk of a Najis animal, such as dog and pig are Haraam. Also, meat and milk of carnivorous animals which usually have claws and flange such as lion, leopard, panther, wolf, hyena, jackal, fox and Maskh animals such as elephant, bear, ape, rabbit are Haraam and eating very small animals and insects such as mice, lizards, snakes, scorpions, beetles, bees, ants, flies, mosquitoes, and worms are Haraam.

2786. Drinking wine (alcoholic beverages of any kind) is Haraam and in some sources (Akhbar), it has been considered as one of the most serious sins, It has been reported from Imam Ja’far Sadiq (S): wine (alcoholic beverages) is the root of all evils and sins. A person who drinks alcohol loses his sanity. At that time, he does not know Allah, does not fear committing any sin, respects the rights of no one, and does not desist from committing evil openly. The spirit of faith and piety departs from him and only the impure and vicious spirit, which is far off from of the Mercy of Allah, remains in his body. Allah, His angels, His prophets and the true believers curse such a man, and his daily prayers are not accepted for forty days. On the Day of Judgement his face will be dark, and his tongue will come out of his mouth, the saliva will fall on his chest and he will desperately complain of thirst.”

2787. Sitting at a table where people are drinking wine (if one would be reckoned as one of them) is Haraam and eating at such a table is Haraam.

2788. It is obligatory upon every Muslim to save the life of a Muslim, who may be dying of hunger or thirst, by providing him enough to eat or drink.