What Invalidates Namaz
1148. Twelve things make prayers void, and they are called Mubtilat:
First, if any of the pre-requisites of prayers ceases to exist while one is in Namaz, like, if he comes to know that the place where he prays is a usurped one.
Second, if a person, intentionally or by mistake, or uncontrollably, commits an act, which makes his Wudhu or Ghusl void, like when urine comes out. But if a person is incontinent, unable to control urine or excretion, his prayers will not be void, if he acts according to the rules explained early in the Chapter of Wudhu. Similarly, if a woman sees blood of Istihaza during prayers, her Namaz is not invalidated if she has acted according to the rules of Istihaza.
1149. If a person sleeps involuntarily, not knowing whether he slept during Namaz or afterwards, it will be necessary for him to repeat the prayers, but if he knows when Namaz is over and doubts that sleeping was during or after Namaz, it is in order.
1150. If a person knows that he slept voluntarily, but doubts whether he slept after or during the prayers, or if he forgot during the prayers that he was praying and fell asleep, his prayers will be valid.
1151. If a person wakes up in Sajdah, and doubts whether he is in the Sajdah of the Namaz or in the Sajdah for Shukr, he should pray again.
Third, if a person folds his hands as a mark of humility like those who are not Shia, his Namaz is void.
1152. If one folds his hands for reverence, even if it is not like those mentioned before, as an obligatory precaution, he must repeat his Namaz, but there is no harm if a person places one hand on another forgetfully or due to helplessness, or for some other purpose, like scratching.
Fourth, one of the Mubtalat of Namaz is to say “Amin” after Surah al-Hamd. But if it is uttered erroneously or under Taqayya, there is no harm.
Fifth, one of the Mubtalat of Namaz is to turn away from Qibla intentionally or forgetfully, or turning to right or left from Qibla or even turning intentionally so much that it is not towards Qibla in general view, even though it does not reach actually to the right or left position, Namaz is void.
1153. If one turns back intentionally or erroneously so that he is able to see behind, his Namaz is void. But if he turns his head a little, whether intentionally or erroneously, his Namaz is not void.
Sixth, one of Mubtalat of Namaz is intentionally uttering a word which has a meaning whether it is a letter or more and he intends to say something. But if it is erroneously said, his Namaz is not void.
1154. If one says a word which has a single letter, if that word has a meaning like “Qi” in Arabic which means “Protect Yourself” his Namaz is void, provided that he knows the meaning and intends that. But if does not mean it and he knows that it has a meaning, as an obligatory precaution, he must pray again.
1155. There is no harm in coughing, belching during the prayers, but if someone utters ‘Oh’ or ‘Ah’ purposely, his Namaz will be void.
1156. If a person utters a word with the object of Zikr, like if he says: Allahu Akbar, and raises his voice to indicate something, there is no harm in it. In fact, Namaz is void, if he utters Zikr with the knowledge that it will convey something to one who hears it, even if there is no intention of Zikr.
1157. There is no harm in reciting the Qur’an, except the four verses, which make Sajdah obligatory, and which have been mentioned in the rules relating to Qira’t and in reciting Duas during the prayers. However, the obligatory precaution is that one should read Duas in Arabic.
1158. If a person intentionally repeats parts of Surah al-Hamd and other Surah, and the Zikr of prayers, without intending them to be a part of the Namaz, or as a matter of some precaution, there is no harm in it, but if he repeats because of obsession, it is void.
1159. A person offering prayers should not greet anyone with Salam, and if another person says Salam to him, he should say Salam in a way that the word of Salam is in the beginning of it. For example, he must say: Asalamo Alaykom or Salam Alaykom, and he must not say: Alykomo Salam.
1160. It is necessary that the reply to Salam is given at once, irrespective of whether one is praying or not. And if, whether intentionally or due to forgetfulness, he delays reply to the Salam, so much that if he gives a reply after the delay, it may not be reckoned to be a reply to that Salam; then, he should not reply if he is in Namaz. And if he is not in Namaz it is not obligatory for him to reply.
1161. A person should reply to a Salam in a way that one who greets him can hear it. However, if he who says Salam is deaf, or passes away quickly, then it is necessary to make reciprocation by sign etc., if that would be understood.
1162. A person who is in Namaz, must respond to Salam with the intention of greeting, and not with the intention of Dua.
1163. If a woman or a Na-Mahram or a discerning child, that is, one who can distinguish between good and evil, says Salam to a person in Namaz, the person should respond. And it is better to respond with intention of Dua.
1164. If a person in Namaz does not respond to Salam, his prayers are in order, though he will have committed a sin.
1165. If a person says Salam to a person in Namaz in a mistaken way, such that it cannot be treated as a Salam, it is not necessary to reply to it. But if it is treated as Salam, it is better to respond with the intention of Dua.
1166. It is not necessary to respond to the Salam of a person who is saying Salam out of ridicule or joke and as an obligatory precaution, one should answer the Salam or a non-Muslim man or woman with Alayka” only.
1167. If a person says Salam to a group of people, it is obligatory for all of them to give a reply. However, if one of them replies, it is sufficient.
1168. If a person says Salam to a group of people, but a person for whom it was not intended gives a reply, it will still be obligatory upon the group to reply.
1169. If a person says Salam to a group among whom one was in Namaz, and that person doubts whether Salam was intended for him or not, it will not be necessary for him to give a reply. and if the person offering prayers is sure that he was also intended by the one who greeted, but someone else has made a response, he does not have to reply. but if he is sure that he was among the group for whom Salam was intended, and no one has replied, then he should reply.
1170. It is Mustahab to greet with Salam, and it has been emphatically enjoined that a person who is riding should greet one who is walking, and a person who is standing should greet one who is sitting, and a younger person should greet an elder.
1171. If two persons simultaneously say Salam to each other, each one of them should reply the Salam of the other.
1172. When a person is not in Namaz, it is Mustahab that his response to the Salam should be more expansive. For example, when one says Salamun alaykum, the other should say Salamun alaykum wa rahmatullah in reply.
Seventh, the seventh thing, which makes Namaz
void is an intentional loud and uncontrollable laugh.
1173. If in order to control his laughter, the condition of the person in Namaz changes, like if the color of his face turns red, so that he is out f form of Namaz, his Namaz is void.
Eighth, if one intentionally weeps loudly over some worldly matters, his Namaz will be void. And, as an obligatory precaution, if he should not weep even silently for worldly matters. But if he weeps silently or loudly due to fear of Allah, or for the hereafter, there is no harm in it. In fact, it is among the best acts.
Ninth, an act which changes the form of Namaz like clapping, dancing, and jumping and the like invalidates Namaz, regardless of whether that act is small or big, intentional or forgetfully. But an act, which does not change the form of Namaz like making a sign by hand, has no harm.
1174. If a person remains silent during Namaz for so long, that it may not be said that he is offering prayers, his Namaz is invalidated.
1175. If a person performs an extraneous act during Namaz, or maintains silence, and then doubts whether his prayers has been thereby invalidated, his Namaz is in order.
Tenth, eating or drinking.
1176. As an obligatory precaution, eating and drinking which disrupts usual Muwalat of Namaz should be avoided, even if it does not disrupt the
1177. If a person in Namaz swallows the food, which has remained around his teeth, his prayers are not invalidated. If things like grains of sugar remain in the mouth and they melt slowly and go down the throat, that is harmful for prayer.
Eleventh, any doubt concerning the number of Rak’ats in those prayers which consist of two or three Rak’ats, will render the Namaz void. Also, if one doubts about the number of the first two Rak’ats, of Namaz having four Rak’ats.
Twelfth, if a person omits or adds the Rukn (elementary parts) of the Namaz, either intentionally or forgetfully, or omits or adds something which is not Rukn, his Namaz is void.
1178. If a person doubts after the Namaz, whether or not he performed any such act which invalidated the prayers, his Namaz will be in order.