traveler should reduce the Rakats in Zuhr, Asr, and Isha prayers; that
is, he should perform two Rakats instead of four, subject to the
following eight conditions:
The first condition is that his journey is
not less than 8 Farsakh. A Farsakh in Shariah
is a little less than 51/2 kilometers.
1294. If the total of outward travel and
return is 8 Farsakh, but only the outward journey is less than 4 Farsakh,
he/she must offer shortened prayer. Therefore, if outward journey is 3
Farsakh and return is 5, he/she must offer complete Namaz.
1295. If the total of outward and return
journey is just 8 Farsakh, the traveler should shorten his prayers, even
if he does not return on the same day or night.
1296. If a brief journey is less than 8
Farsakh, or if a person does not know whether or not his journey is 8
Farsakh, he should not shorten his prayers. If he doubts whether or not
his journey is 8 Farsakh, if investigation has difficulty (according to
customary norms not according to reasoning), he/she should offer Namaz in
complete form; and if it has not difficulty (as per the above definition),
as an obligatory precaution, he/she must investigate. If two Adil persons
testify or it is usually said by the people that the concerned distance is
8 Farsakh, he/she must shorten Namaz.
If an Adil person says that the journey is 8 Farsakh, it seems that his
word is not enough to prove the 8 Farsakh of journey and he/she must offer
complete Namaz and it is better (more precautions) to offer both shortened
and complete Namaz.
1298. If a person believed that his journey
equaled 8 Farsakh, and he shortened his prayers, and learnt later that it
was not 8 Farsakh, he should offer four Rakats of prayers, and if the
time for the prayers has lapsed, he should perform its Qadha.
1299. If a person is sure that his journey is
not of 8 Farsakh, or if he doubts whether or not it is of 8 Farsakh, if he
realizes on his way that the distance of his journey had been 8 Farsakh,
he should offer shortened prayers, even if very little remains of his
journey. If he has offered complete prayers, he should offer it again in
the shortened form.
1300. If a person frequents between two
places which are less than 4 Farsakh apart, he should offer complete
prayers, even if the total distance covered by him may add up to 8
1301. If two roads lead to a place, one of
the less than 8 Farsakh away, and the other 8 Farsakh or more, the
traveler will offer shortened prayers if he travels by the road which is 8
Farsakh away, and complete prayers if he travels by the road which is less
than 8 Farsakh away.
If a city has walls around it, the beginning of city is calculated from
that wall, and if there is no wall, the last houses of city should be
taken into consideration, but in big cities, there is no special rule
provided customarily going from one locality to another is not considered