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Cases of Tayammum

In seven cases Tayammum should be performed as an alternative to Wudhu and Ghusl:

First Case

When it is not possible to get enough water for Wudhu and Ghusl.

647. If a person happens to be in a populated area, he should make his best efforts to procure water for Wudhu or Ghusl till such time that he loses all hopes. And if he happens to be in a desert, he should search for water on the way or at nearby places. And if the land is uneven, or densely wooded, and it is difficult to walk, he should search for water in all the four directions for a distance covered by one fling of an arrow. And if the land is not so, he should search for water in all directions for a distance covered by two flings of an old

648. If out of four directions, some are even and others are uneven, one should search for water in the even direction to the extent of two arrow flings, and on the side, which is uneven to the extent of one arrow fling

649. It is not obligatory for a person for water in the direction where he is sure that water is not available

650. If the time left for Namaz is not short, and if he is sure or feels sure that water is available at a farther place, he should go there to procure water, provided that going there is not extremely difficult, and that the distance is not unusually long. And if he has mere suspicion about water being there, then it is not necessary for him to go, but if he is sure, as an obligatory precaution, he must go there

657. If a person is sure that he cannot get water and does not, therefore, go in search of water and offers his prayers with Tayammum, but realizes after prayers that if he had made an effort he would have fetched water, his Namaz is void

658. If a person could not get water after a search and prayed with Tayammum and then learns later after offering prayers that water was available at the place where he had searched, his prayers is valid

659. If the time for Namaz has set in and a person is already with Wudhu, he should not allow his Wudhu to become void, if he knows that he will not be able to find water, he should not invalidate his Wudhu deliberately

660. Similarly, if a person is with Wudhu before the time for prayers set in, and knew that if he made his Wudhu void, it would not be possible for him to get water, as an obligatory precaution, he should not invalidate the Wudhu deliberately

661. If a person has just sufficient water for Wudhu or for Ghusl, and if he knows that if he spills it he will not be able to get water again, it is Haraam for him to spill it if the time for prayers has already set in, and the obligatory precaution is that he should not throw it away even before the time for prayers set in

662. If a person knew that he would not get water, and yet made his Wudhu void or spilled it after the time for prayers had set in, he committed a sin but his prayers with Tayammum will be in order. However, the recommended precaution is that he should offer the Qadha of the prayers.

Second Case

663. If a person is unable to procure water on account of old age or weakness or fear of a thief or a beast, or because he does not possess means to draw water from a well, he should perform Tayammum

664. If a bucket, a rope and other similar implements are needed for pulling water out of a well, and the person concerned is obliged to purchase or hire them, he should do so even if he has to pay much more than the usual rate. Similarly, he has to buy the water even if it is sold at a higher price. However, if by doing so, his economic condition is harmed, then it is not obligatory to procure them

665. If a person is obliged to take a loan for procuring water, he should take a loan. However, if he knows or feels that it will not be possible for him to repay the loan, it is not obligatory to procure them.

Third case

668. If a person fears that if he uses water his life will be endangered, or he will suffer from some ailment or physical defect, or the illness from which he is already suffering will be prolonged, or become acute or some complications may arise in its treatment, he should perform Tayammum. However, if he can avoid the harm by using warm water, he should prepare warm water and do Wudhu or Ghusl

669. It is not necessary to be absolutely certain that water is harmful to him. If he feels that there is a probability of harm, and if that probability is justified by popular opinion, giving cause for some fear, then he should do Tayammum

670. If a person has an eye disease and water is harmful to him, he should perform Tayammum

671. If a person performs Tayammum on account of certainty or fear about water being harmful to him, but realizes before Namaz that it is not harmful, his Tayammum is void. And if he realizes this after having prayed, his Namaz is valid

672. If a person was sure that water was not harmful to him, and he did Ghusl or Wudhu, but later realized that water was harmful to him, his Wudhu or Ghusl will be valid.

Fourth case

673. If one fears that if he/she uses water for Ghusl or Wudhu, he/she himself/herself or his/her wife/husband or children or friends and dependents such as servants or maids will die or will become ill or will be intolerably thirsty, he/she must perform Tayammum instead of Wudhu and Ghusl and if he/she fears that an animal belonging to him/her or someone else will die of thirst, he/she must give the water to it and perform Tayammum. Also, if someone whose life is obligatory to preserve, will become so thirsty that if one does not give water to him/her, he/she will die, it is necessary to give him/her the water ad perform Tayammum

674. If besides the Pak water which a person has for Wudhu or Ghusl, he also has Najis water enough for drinking, he should keep the Pak water for drinking and pray with Tayammum. If water is required for an animal, it should be given Najis water to drink and Pak water be used for Wudhu or Ghusl.

Fifth Case

675. If the body or dress of a person is Najis and he possesses only as much water as is likely to be exhausted if he does Ghusl or Wudhu, and no water would be available for making his body or dress Pak, he should make his body or dress Pak and pray Namaz with Tayammum. But if he does not have anything upon which he would do Tayammum, then he should use the water for Ghusl and Wudhu, and pray with Najis body or dress.

Sixth Case

676. If a person possesses such a water or container which is not permitted to use, like when they are usurped (Ghasbi) he should perform Tayammum instead of Ghusl and Wudhu.

Seventh Case

677. When the time left for Namaz is so little that if a person does Ghusl or Wudhu he would be obliged to offer the entire prayers or a part of it after the prescribed time, he should perform Tayammum

678. If a person intentionally delays offering the prayers till no time is left for Ghusl or Wudhu, he commits a sin, but the prayers offered by him with Tayammum will be valid, although recommended precaution is that he should give Qadha of the prayers

679. If a person doubts whether any time will be left for prayers if he does Ghusl or Wudhu, he should perform Tayammum

680. If a person performs Tayammum owing to shortage of time and after the Namaz he had an opportunity to do Wudhu but did not do so till the water he had is no longer with him, he will have to perform a new Tayammum for subsequent prayers, even if the first Tayammum had not become void, provided, of course, that Tayammum continues to be his religious obligation

681. If a person has water, but because of shortage of time he prays with Tayammum and while in prayers, the water he had goes out of his possession, he will do Tayammum again for the subsequent prayers; and he cannot pray with first Tayammum.

682. If a person has only just enough time that he may perform Wudhu or Ghusl and offer prayers without its Mustahab acts like Iqamah and Qnut, he should do Ghusl or Wudhu, whichever is then necessary, and pray without those Mustahab parts. In fact, if for that purpose, he has to avoid the next Surah after al-Hamd, he shuld do so after doing Wudhu or Ghusl, and pray without reciting the Surah.